It is the forum for exchange of information; submission of requests in parallel with their in-country submission; notification of activities by the development community; reports on domestic reform by the recipients; and dialogue and exchange of views between donors and recipients. On the trade side, in November a month later , the Sub-Committee on Cotton SCC was established to prioritize cotton independently from other sectoral initiatives.
SCC adopted a work programme in March In the negotiations, progress has been made on the trade policy aspects, although much of it is conditional on the conclusion of the Doha Round. Benefiting from the progress made on the trade policy aspects depends on the conclusion of the Doha Round. Considerable progress has been made on the development aspect, although challenges remain.
The Doha development agenda: impacts on trade and poverty | Eldis
In response to the mandate, action has evolved along several interrelated lines. At the start, the development community moved to design cotton development assistance programmes and activities.
Several of the proponents acted to identify cotton sector priorities. A few embarked on the process of formulating cotton sector-specific projects. As a result of donor-recipient engagement, several of the proponents intensified cotton sector and wider domestic reforms; the purpose being to enhance the absorption and maximization of assistance provided by the development community.
In the ensuing exchange of views between the donor community and the recipients, specific priority areas emerged based on needs expressed by the receiving countries and areas of actual and continuing delivery. These merit attention because they are illustrative of assistance needed in a specific sector such as cotton. The areas of assistance also show overlap with areas of broader development assistance. They include:. Of equal importance, since , ITC has maintained active engagement in the entire process and has contributed in no small measure to other areas of delivery.
For instance, it has provided support to recipient countries seeking to prepare projects for support by the development community. Part I covers development assistance specific to cotton. Part III identifies available resources that can be accessed for the cotton sector if the eligible recipient country identifies the sector as a priority and explicitly decides to allocate a specified amount of the available resources to the cotton sector.
The Table has also emerged as the basis for monitoring.
Monitoring the implementation of cotton development assistance is a critical preoccupation for both donors and recipients. The purpose of monitoring is to ensure relevant matches between identified needs and assistance on offer; bridge the gap between commitments and disbursements; gauge the pace of operational implementation; and indicate a calendar for commitments, disbursements and operational implementation.
It has emerged as a transparency tool, and the basis for seeking accountability and monitoring implementation. It is work in progress. Development assistance in support of the cotton sector in DDA is no ordinary assistance. The difference from normal assistance lies in the direct linkage between development assistance for cotton and the negotiating mandate. This has rendered the task of implementing the mandate on the development assistance aspects much more difficult.
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Useful lessons have been learned in implementation. First and foremost is the vital necessity of identifying national priorities in development plans, or strategies for poverty reduction, and moving rapidly to translate priorities into professionally prepared fundable projects by the development community.go
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Second, the roles of the donor and the recipients are not free-standing roles, but are interlocked. One role cannot be conceived in the absence of the other. The effectiveness of one role is linked to the effectiveness of the other. And the effectiveness in the implementation of the mandate is tightly dependent on this partnership; in the absence of which the gaps between commitments and disbursements will widen and the acceleration of the pace of operational implementation will be hindered.
Third, within the framework of multilateral trade negotiations, development assistance limited to a few Members generates sensitivities. Non-beneficiaries who are nonetheless eligible consider such limited development assistance as efforts designed to buy off and blunt trade interests. Although the initial starting point was development assistance targeted to the proponents of the sectoral initiative on cotton, the imperative for more broad-based solutions and regional activities — going beyond individual borders — emerged.
Fourth, coordination and coherence at the level of both donors and recipients remain critical, with wide scope for improvement. Development assistance has spawned dispersed and diffuse structures for identifying priorities, implementation and managing delivery. Vested interests exist and are increasing. These have an impact on efficiency in delivery. The Evolving Table on Cotton Development Assistance remains the principal instrument for engagement, transparency and monitoring. Because of progress made in this ongoing process, the mechanism of the Consultative Framework and the instrument of the Evolving Table could be beneficial, if extended to similar areas of capacity building.
This interactive process of verification, though difficult at first, builds mutual confidence, enhances ownership, and contributes to agreed parameters for benchmarking progress. The process also fosters the principles of aid effectiveness.
Doha Development Round
We have learned that banking on one-sided declarations has strong limitations and does not engender ownership. Entries into databases that record development assistance linked to a negotiating mandate indispensably require fact-based discussions and verification. A final lesson reaffirmed is that while needs are infinite, resources are finite.
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- EconPapers: Poverty and the WTO: Impacts of the Doha Development Agenda;
Log out of ReadCube. This paper summarises the findings from a major international research project on the poverty impacts of a potential Doha Development Agenda. The implications for world markets are established using a global modelling framework, the outputs of which form the basis for a dozen country case studies of the national poverty impacts of the DDA scenarios. Liberalisation targets under the DDA have to be quite ambitious if the round is to have a measurable impact on poverty. On balance, poverty is reduced under the core DDA scenario, and this reduction is more pronounced in the longer run.
Deeper cuts in developing country tariffs are found to make the DDA more poverty friendly. It is also clear that, in order to generate significant poverty reductions in the near term, complementary domestic reforms are required to enable households to take advantage of the new market opportunities. Over the long run, sustained poverty reduction depends on stimulating economic growth, which suggests that trade reforms must go beyond tariffs and subsidies, also addressing barriers to services trade and investment.
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