Cardiac arrhythmia , also known as "cardiac dysrhythmia" or "irregular heartbeat", is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow. A heart rate that is too fast — above beats per minute in adults — is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow — below 60 beats per minute — is called bradycardia.
When symptoms are present these may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats. More seriously there may be lightheadedness , passing out , shortness of breath , or chest pain. There are four main types of arrhythmia: extra beats , supraventricular tachycardias , ventricular arrhythmias , and bradyarrhythmias.
Extra beats include premature atrial contractions , premature ventricular contractions , and premature junctional contractions. Supraventricular tachycardias include atrial fibrillation , atrial flutter , and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Ventricular arrhythmias include ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
Most arrhythmias can be effectively treated. Medications for a fast heart rate may include beta blockers or agents that attempt to restore a normal heart rhythm such as procainamide. This later group may have more significant side effects especially if taken for a long period of time.
Pacemakers are often used for slow heart rates. Those with an irregular heartbeat are often treated with blood thinners to reduce the risk of complications.
Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study
Those who have severe symptoms from an arrhythmia may receive urgent treatment with a jolt of electricity in the form of cardioversion or defibrillation. Arrhythmia affects millions of people. Coronary artery disease , also known as "ischemic heart disease",  is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina , unstable angina , myocardial infarction , and sudden cardiac death. Usually symptoms occur with exercise or emotional stress , last less than a few minutes, and get better with rest.
Risk factors include: high blood pressure , smoking , diabetes , lack of exercise, obesity , high blood cholesterol , poor diet, and excessive alcohol , among others. A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram , cardiac stress testing , coronary computed tomographic angiography , and coronary angiogram , among others. Prevention is by eating a healthy diet, regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight and not smoking. In CAD was the most common cause of death globally, resulting in 8. Cardiac arrest is a sudden stop in effective blood flow due to the failure of the heart to contract effectively.
The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease. Less common causes include major blood loss , lack of oxygen, very low potassium , heart failure , and intense physical exercise.
A number of inherited disorders may also increase the risk including long QT syndrome. The initial heart rhythm is most often ventricular fibrillation. Prevention includes not smoking, physical activity, and maintaining a healthy weight. In the United States , cardiac arrest outside of hospital occurs in about 13 per 10, people per year , cases.
In hospital cardiac arrest occurs in an additional ,  Cardiac arrest becomes more common with age. It affects males more often than females. Many who survive have significant disability. Many U. A congenital heart defect , also known as a "congenital heart anomaly" or "congenital heart disease", is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. The cause of a congenital heart defect is often unknown. Congenital heart defects are partly preventable through rubella vaccination , the adding of iodine to salt, and the adding of folic acid to certain food products.
Heart defects are the most common birth defect. Diagnostic tests in cardiology are the methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. The starting point is obtaining a medical history , followed by Auscultation. Then blood tests , electrophysiological procedures , and cardiac imaging can be ordered for further analysis.
Electrophysiological procedures include electrocardiogram , cardiac monitoring , cardiac stress testing , and the electrophysiology study. London Cardiologists. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the medical specialty.
For the album, see Cardiology album. For the medical journal, see Cardiology journal.
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Blood flow diagram of the human heart. Blue components indicate de-oxygenated blood pathways and red components indicate oxygenated blood pathways. Main article: Cardiac electrophysiology. Main article: Clinical cardiac electrophysiology. Main article: Cardiogeriatrics. Main article: Echocardiography. Main article: Interventional cardiology. Main article: heart.
Main article: Coronary circulation. Main article: Cardiac examination. Main article: List of heart disorders. Main article: Hypertension. Main articles: Essential hypertension and Secondary hypertension. Main article: Complications of hypertension. Main article: Cardiac arrhythmia. Main article: Coronary artery disease. Main article: Cardiac arrest. Main article: Congenital heart defect. Main article: Diagnostic tests in cardiology. Main category: Cardiology journals. Main article: List of cardiologists. Full Details Information. American Osteopathic Association.
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