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Angela takes to task expertly, treating me like a nasty cuck and having me do all manner of things. Download today, but be careful because this collection is hot! Although the Code was adopted in , oversight was poor, and it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1, , with the establishment of the Production Code Administration PCA.enter
Before that date, movie content was restricted more by local laws, negotiations between the Studio Relations Committee SRC and the major studios, and popular opinion, than by strict adherence to the Hays Code, which was often ignored by Hollywood filmmakers. As a result, some films in the late s and early s depicted or implied sexual innuendo , romantic and sexual relationships between white and Black people , mild profanity , illegal drug use , promiscuity , prostitution , infidelity , abortion , intense violence , and homosexuality. Along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades later in US films.
Robinson got their start in the era. Other stars who excelled during this period, however, like Ruth Chatterton who decamped to England and Warren William the so-called "king of Pre-Code", who died in , would wind up essentially forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late and escalating throughout the first half of , American Roman Catholics launched a campaign against what they deemed the immorality of American cinema.
This, plus a potential government takeover of film censorship and social research seeming to indicate that movies which were seen to be immoral could promote bad behavior, was enough pressure to force the studios to capitulate to greater oversight. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee ,  served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America MPPDA , where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums , and negotiated treaties to cease hostilities.
Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula" in , which the studios were advised to heed, and asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures,  and while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before, such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry NAMPI in , little had come of the efforts. Lord , a Jesuit priest, created a code of standards of which Hays strongly approved  and submitted it to the studios.
After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention. Joy, to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required.
The Code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of "general principles" that mostly concerned morality. The second was a set of "particular applications", an exacting list of items that could not be depicted. Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation.
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Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden. The Code stated that the notion of an "adults-only policy" would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. The Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but also to promote traditional values. Under some circumstances, politicians, police officers and judges could be villains, as long as it was clear that they were the exception to the rule.
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The entire document contained Catholic undertones and stated that art must be handled carefully because it could be "morally evil in its effects" and because its "deep moral significance" was unquestionable. On February 19, , Variety published the entire contents of the Code and predicted that state film censorship boards would soon become obsolete. James Wingate — were seen as generally ineffective. Joy had to review films a year using a small staff and little power. One factor in ignoring the Code was the fact that some found such censorship prudish.
Therefore, events such as the Boston Tea Party could not be portrayed. And if clergy were always to be presented positively, then hypocrisy could not be examined either. Additionally, the Great Depression of the s motivated studios to produce films with racy and violent content, which boosted ticket sales. In , The Hollywood Reporter mocked the code, and Variety followed suit in In the same year as the Variety article, a noted screenwriter stated that "the Hays moral code is not even a joke any more; it's just a memory.
Although the liberalization of sexuality in American film had increased during the s,  the pre-Code era is either dated to the start of the sound film era, or more generally to March , when the Hays Code was first written. Ohio by instituting a censorship board in Virginia followed suit the next year,  and eight individual states had a board by the advent of sound film. Many of these boards were ineffectual.
By the s, the New York stage, a frequent source of subsequent screen material, had topless shows; performances were filled with curse words, mature subject matter, and sexually suggestive dialogue. Irving G. Allen of Paramount responded by collaborating on a list they called the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls", based on items that were challenged by local censor boards, and which consisted of eleven subjects best avoided, and twenty-six to be handled very carefully. Director Cecil B. DeMille was responsible for the increasing discussion of sex in cinema in the s.
The Great Depression presented a unique time for film-making in the United States. The economic disaster brought on by the stock market crash of changed American values and beliefs in various ways. Themes of American exceptionalism and traditional concepts of personal achievement, self-reliance, and the overcoming of odds lost great currency. The cynicism, challenging of traditional beliefs, and political controversy of Hollywood films during this period mirrored the attitudes of many of their patrons.
Scott Fitzgerald commented in Although films experienced an unprecedented level of freedom and dared to portray things that would be kept hidden for several decades, many in America looked upon the stock market crash as a product of the excesses of the previous decade. Joan Crawford ultimately reforms her ways and is saved; less fortunate is William Bakewell , who continues on the careless path that leads to his ultimate self-destruction. The song was repeated sarcastically by characters in several films such as Under Eighteen and 20, Years in Sing Sing Less comical was the picture of the United States' future presented in Heroes for Sale that same year , in which a hobo looks into a depressing night and proclaims, "It's the end of America".
Heroes for Sale was directed by prolific pre-Code director William Wellman and featured silent film star Richard Barthelmess as a World War I veteran cast onto the streets with a morphine addiction from his hospital stay. In Wild Boys of the Road , the young man played by Frankie Darrow leads a group of dispossessed juvenile drifters who frequently brawl with the police.
Complicating matters for the studios, the advent of sound film in required an immense expenditure in sound stages, recording booths, cameras, and movie-theater sound systems, not to mention the new-found artistic complications of producing in a radically altered medium. The studios were in a difficult financial position even before the market crash as the sound conversion process and some risky purchases of theater chains had pushed their finances near the breaking point.
Even so, 60 million Americans went to the cinema weekly. Apart from the economic realities of the conversion to sound, were the artistic considerations.
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Early sound films were often noted for being too verbose. Seething beneath the surface of American life in the Depression was the fear of the angry mob, portrayed in panicked hysteria in films such as Gabriel Over the White House , The Mayor of Hell , and American Madness Groups of agitated men either standing in breadlines, loitering in hobo camps, or marching the streets in protest became a prevalent sight during the Great Depression. Although social issues were examined more directly in the pre-Code era, Hollywood still largely ignored the Great Depression, as many films sought to ameliorate patrons' anxieties rather than incite them.
Hays remarked in . This we must keep before us at all times and we must realize constantly the fatality of ever permitting our concern with social values to lead us into the realm of propaganda Hays and others, such as Samuel Goldwyn , obviously felt that motion pictures presented a form of escapism that served a palliative effect on American moviegoers.
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The length of pre-Code films was usually comparatively short,  but that running time often required tighter material and did not affect the impact of message films. Employees' Entrance received the following review from Jonathan Rosenbaum : "As an attack on ruthless capitalism, it goes a lot further than more recent efforts such as Wall Street , and it's amazing how much plot and character are gracefully shoehorned into 75 minutes.
He also threatens to fire Loretta Young 's character, who pretends to be single to stay employed, unless she sleeps with him, then attempts to ruin her husband after learning she is married.
Films that stated a position about a social issue were usually labeled either "propaganda films" or "preachment yarns". Warner , was the most prominent maker of these types of pictures and preferred they be called "Americanism stories". The Jazz Age prelude was almost singularly used to cast shame on the boisterous behavior of the s. Cabin in the Cotton is a Warner Bros. The film takes place in an unspecified southern state where workers are given barely enough to survive and taken advantage of by being charged exorbitant interest rates and high prices by unscrupulous landowners.
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