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- String Quartet No. 1 in e minor, Op. 112.
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Sor - Six divertissements pour la guitare Opus 1. Sor - Six divertissements pour la guitare Opus 2. Tchaikovsky's Orchestra Works - I. The Gimo Music Collection. Not logged in Log in. Tchaikovsky Research. Wiki tools Special pages Cite this page. Page tools. Userpage tools. The first movement explodes into life with a dramatic theme on the three upper strings marked by trills. This theme informs much of the musical argument that follows.
A spacious chordal idea, and one percussive in character, complete the first group of themes. By contrast a new section commences with a relaxed, flowing theme heard initially on the first violin. The development reaches its climax with a forceful statement of the chordal idea and in the recapitulation the principal ideas are heard in a different scoring. Soft dissonances, with the strings muted, open the Sostenuto , which is contemplative in character. A short, faster section leads to a brooding climax and on to an impassioned cello solo, unmuted, against the other instruments playing tremolando still with their mutes on.
As if the music is suspended, a still threefold repetition of the opening dissonance played pianissimo concludes the movement. It opens with a bounding rising arpeggio that dominates this rhythmically energetic music. The brief Trio -like section is characterised by a dogged, insistent figure played by the quartet in rhythmic unison. The finale is shaped from ideas heard in alternate tempos at the outset. A series of descending chords usher in the Larghetto and are followed by an elegiac viola solo.
By contrast the Allegro is marked by a purposeful theme introduced by the first violin. Later in the movement the Larghetto melody is played by both the first violin and cello and it is this theme which ends the quartet as a whole, as in the very final bars the music comes to rest serenely in the major rather than minor key.
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Clearly Bliss loved the clarinet, and significantly it was the instrument of his brother Kennard, who had been killed in the First World War. Undoubtedly the work is one of his finest achievements. Like Mozart and Brahms in their clarinet quintets, Bliss chose the A clarinet because of its silkier tones. In its highest register it is brilliant and piercing, with an almost pinched trumpet sound; in its middle octave it is beautifully pure and expressive, with a clear even tone; in its lowest register it is reedy in sound, with a dark, mournful and rather hollow quality.
It is an immensely agile instrument, capable of extreme dynamic range, extending to a powerful forte to the softest pianissimo. The clarinet is heard to expressive effect at the beginning of the first movement with an extended solo cantilena. Surely for sheer beauty this opening must rank among the most memorable in 20th-century chamber music? But, as often with Bliss, the serenity which marks the first movement is contrasted with altogether ominous moods in the stabbing rhythms, martial-like fanfares and dissonances of the succeeding dramatic scherzo.
Contrast is provided by a solo violin melody of aching poignancy, which is followed by a pizzicato passage before the drama returns. At the heart of the work is the pensive slow movement which grows from the simple syncopated violin phrase at the start. After this central point a stately sarabande-like melody leads to a return of the principal idea. Shadows intrude intermittently in more introspective sections, only to be banished once and for all in the sparkling coda. Frank Bridge studied the violin and composition at the Royal College of Music in London, where he was a pupil of Charles Villiers Stanford from to Apart from composition, his career embraced performance as the viola player in several quartets, most notably the English String Quartet, conducting, in which he frequently deputised for Sir Henry Wood, and teaching, with Benjamin Britten his best-known pupil.
Perhaps no other British composer of the first half of the 20th century reveals such a stylistic journey in his music. After the First World War, however, his music became intense and chromatic as in the Scriabinesque Piano Sonata — The radical language of the sonata was pursued in his chamber works of the s, so that in the String Quartet No.
Also to this decade belong two orchestral masterpieces, Enter Spring and Oration At the outset of his career Bridge established his name through a series of chamber works in which he demonstrated impeccable craftsmanship, and a wholly idiomatic understanding of string instruments, with the viola, his own main instrument frequently having prominence. A further influence on the form of these works lay in the prizes instituted by Walter Wilson Cobbett, an amateur musician whose interests were chamber music and the period of the Elizabethan and Jacobean composers.
In Cobbett established a prize for chamber compositions in one movement and Bridge submitted several works for his competitions, winning First Prize in and What was significant, though, was that Bridge adapted aspects of the phantasy form within subsequent compositions, so that thematic unity within a work of one or several movements became a hallmark of his compositions.
He had had to work at such speed that there was no time to copy a second set of parts, and it took the Accademia two-and-a-half years to return the originals; consequently, the work was not given its first performance until when the English String Quartet performed it in London. Here it is a two bar, sad, falling chromatic cello phrase. Two pianissimo chords follow, pregnant with anticipation, before the music plunges direct into the drama of the Allegro appassionato with the first violin taking over the motif. Cast in an arch shape, the Adagio molto opens with mysterious chords, alternating with a plaintive first violin phrase.
An extended theme on viola follows, whose initial reticence is transformed into a passionate burst of emotion. The scherzo is all dancing airiness and light, while the Trio is graced by a melody shared between first violin and viola whose rhythm is frequently at odds with the underlying pizzicato accompaniment. Later in the Trio Bridge clearly alludes to the main motif of the opening movement. Both the main melodic ideas of the finale are heard initially from the first violin, and both are flowing in character, the first one accompanied by sonorous texture and the second incorporating triplets.https://volunteerparks.org/wp-content/biqezet/3145.php
In a masterly stroke of thematic unity, Bridge reintroduces the main motif of the first movement at the end of the work. The music fades, all comes full circle as the cello intones the motif for the last time and the Quartet ends in a mood of sombre tragedy. It was composed in —26 and first performed by the Kolisch Quartet in Vienna in These are generally short motifs from which the web is spun and throughout the music is interrelated. In the slow introduction and opening bars of the Allegro , the thematic motifs and harmonic elements of the first movement, indeed the whole work, are laid bare, ideas that are ripe for infinite change and transformation in the highly charged sonata structure that follows.
Of particular importance is a four-note semiquaver group that turns in on itself and is pervasive through the Quartet , while the main first subject begins on the first violin with a wide leap upwards, and an angular falling back. A rising, eerie sequence in rhythmic unison leads to the second group of ideas with the viola leading the way. These rise to a glorious climax when a magical change of harmony is like a ray of sunlight breaking through clouds.
The movement ends with an exciting coda and a terse concluding note. The ternary form Andante con moto is utterly different, a shrouded, crepuscular world of shadows and half-lights, evocative of the Sussex downland where Bridge settled and which he loved, at dawn or dusk. It inhabits a mood of melancholy established by the wistful, muted dialogue between the violins, heard against pizzicato viola and single notes on the cello. Throughout, links, either veiled or obvious, can be heard to the musical material exposed in the first movement. In the finale, a sonata rondo , the energetic contrapuntal dialectic of the first movement, is enjoined again and much of the musical material resurfaces in new guises.
An athletic long-limbed theme heard on the first violin, accompanied by dissonant chords forms the main idea, whilst the second is an agitated theme played by the cello high in its range. In the development section the main themes of the first movement are considered again, while in the recapitulation the second subject, now on viola, precedes the first. After a last climax, the work ends with an extended epilogue section in which the strands are brought together with references to all three movements.
Without any preamble the first violin launches into the main theme of the opening movement which dips and rises in a lyrical contour and features triplets. Bursts of rhythmic energy follow, but these give way to a nostalgic expansive second principal theme given initially to the viola to reveal its expressive range over oscillating triplets.
A slow coda of pensive beauty based on both main themes concludes the movement. Thematic integration is also evident with triplets once again dominating the landscape of the breezy, airy scherzo and spawning new ideas which in turn become the main melody of the Andante con moto. Similarly the main themes of the Allegro vivace can both be related to previous ideas. The pattering figure, like dappled light, also bears similarity to the opening of Summer and overall the music becomes more optimistic until in a master stroke Bridge weaves in both themes from the first movement.
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Composed during —10, it was dedicated to Cobbett and given its premiere by the Henkel Piano Quartet in The Quartet opens with a passionate introductory gesture for the whole ensemble before the piano plays a lyrical, undulating theme shot through with sadness which forms the main idea of the opening section. It is taken up by the cello and leads to a warmer second theme that is constantly aspiring upwards and culminates in a quasi-Brahmsian harmonic sequence. A puckish scherzo follows. It scampers impishly along to reach with the trio the middle of the overall arch form of the Quartet.
Here the introductory ideas of the quartet return. The journey back begins with a recapitulation of the scherzo , then the introduction itself is now truncated and for cello alone. Second time around the slow music is developed and rises to an ardent climax as the ideas are reviewed, before a tranquil coda brings the work to an end in the calm of the major key. The work follows the developments Bridge had made in his Third Quartet in its use of chromatic dissonance; however, as the Bridge scholar Anthony Payne has observed, its formal structure has a more classical approach with a clear-cut sonataform first movement, followed by a minuet and a rondo finale.
The opening movement embraces several swiftly changing moods and directions, contrasting energy and tenderness. After a brief call to attention by the viola, the athletic principal theme is introduced on the first violin. By contrast, the second main idea is an outburst of singing lyricism for the viola. Bridge follows this opening drama not with a slow movement but one with an intermezzo-like quality.
It is not, however, in the relaxed vein as the term might suggest; instead it is a sinister minuet built from the obsessive rhythm of the opening bar. Here is a world of twilight shadows with the omnipresent rhythm offset by outpourings of haunted melody frequently exploiting the dark hues of the viola. In the concluding rondo Bridge blows away the mood of the preceding movement with music which proceeds by leaps and bounds and increasingly takes on a confident character.
Related String Quartet in E Minor - Viola
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